Radon gas destroys lives! As the second leading cause of lung cancer, radon kills thousands every year, just in the United States alone. A substance to which no one is immune! Radon exists worldwide. Without the proper precautions, this radioactive gas can destroy your health. Test now. Test Kit Prices
Radon gas cannot be seen, smelled or tasted, but it exists in the air you breathe and gets into the water you drink. You are likely to gain the most exposure to Radon in your own home, where you spend most of your time. Without proper precautions, Radon can build up to toxic levels and put your family members in danger of developing lung cancer. Get a radon gas test kit now for under $15
Attention Smokers: Radon gas has been found to be only second to smoking as the major cause of lung cancer. If you smoke and are exposed to high levels of Radon gas, your risk of developing lung cancer is higher than you think!
Radon (chemical symbol Rn and atomic number 86) is a naturally occurring radioactive gas found in soils, rock, and water throughout the World. It has numerous different isotopes, but radon-220, and -222 are the most common. Radon is on of the heaviest gases, has a half-life of 3.823 days and emits alpha particles. Radon causes lung cancer, and is a threat to health because it tends to collect in homes, sometimes to very high concentrations. As a result, radon is the largest source of exposure to naturally occurring radiation.
The German Chemist Friedrich E. Dorn discovered radon-222 in 1900, and called it radium emanation. However, a scarcer isotope, radon-220, was actually observed first, in 1899, by British scientists R.B. Owens and Ernest Rutherford. The medical community nationwide became aware of radon in 1984. That year a nuclear plant worker in Pennsylvania discovered radioactivity on his clothing while exiting his place of work through the radiation detectors. The source of the radiation was determined to be radon decay products on his clothing originating from his home.
Radon-222 is the decay product of radium-226. Radon-222 and its parent, radium-226, are part of the long decay chain for uranium-238. Since uranium is essentially ubiquitous in the earth's crust, radium-226 and radon-222 are present in almost all rock, soil, and water.
|Protect your family from the unnecessary risks of RADON! Follow the links below to learn more!|
Office of Air and Radiation (OAR),
Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (ORIA) (6609J)
An Adobe Acrobat PDF version of this document is also available hmbuygud.pdf
|Table of Contents|
|Based on information contained in the National Academy of Sciences report, The Health Effects of Exposure to Indoor Radon, radon is estimated to cause more than 21,000 lung cancer deaths per year. The numbers of deaths from other causes are taken from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Report, as well as the National Safety Council Reports.|
This Guide answers important questions about radon and lung cancer risk. It also answers questions about testing and fixing for anyone buying or selling a home.
You can't see radon. And you can't smell it or taste it, but it just may be a problem in your home, office or school.
Radon is estimated to cause many thousands of deaths each year. That's because when you breathe air containing radon, you can get lung cancer. In fact, the Surgeon General has warned that radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States today. Only smoking causes more lung cancer deaths. If you smoke and your home has high radon levels, your risk of lung cancer is especially high.
National Academy of Sciences Report on Radon In February 1998, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) released its report on radon and lung cancer, The Health Effects of Exposure to Indoor Radon (the BEIR VI report). Available here. The NAS is an independent, non-governmental, scientific organization. The NAS estimates that radon causes between 15,000 and 22,000 lung cancer deaths each year in the United States and that 12 percent of all lung cancer deaths are linked to radon. The BEIR VI Committee (Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation) concluded that after smoking, radon is the second leading cause of death due to lung cancer in the United States.
Testing is the only way to know if you and your family are at risk from radon. EPA and the Surgeon General recommend testing all homes below the third floor for radon. EPA also recommends testing in schools.
Testing is inexpensive and easy - it should only take a few minutes of your time. Millions of Americans have already tested their homes for radon
Radon reduction systems work and they are not too costly. Some radon reduction systems can reduce radon levels in your home by up to 99%. Even very high levels can be reduced to acceptable levels.
Radon is a radioactive gas. It comes from the natural decay of uranium that is found in nearly all soils. It typically moves up through the ground to the air above and into your home through cracks and other holes in the foundation. Your home traps radon inside, where it can build up. Any home may have a radon problem. This means new and old homes, well-sealed and drafty homes, and homes with or without basements.
Radon from soil gas is the main cause of radon problems. Sometimes radon enters the home through well water (see "Radon in Water" below). In a small number of homes, the building materials can give off radon, too. However, building materials rarely cause radon problems by themselves.
RADON GETS IN THROUGH:
1. Cracks in solid floors
2. Construction joints
3. Cracks in walls
4. Gaps in suspended floors
5. Gaps around service pipes
6. Cavities inside walls
7. The water supply
Nearly 1 out of every 15 homes in the United States is estimated to have an elevated radon level (4 pCi/L or more). Elevated levels of radon gas have been found in homes in your state. Contact your state radon office for information about radon in your area.
Testing is the only way to know if you and your family are at risk from radon. EPA and the Surgeon General recommend testing all homes below the third floor for radon.
You cannot predict radon levels based on state, local, and neighborhood radon measurements. Do not rely on radon test results taken in other homes in the neighborhood to estimate the radon level in your home. Homes which are next to each other can have different radon levels. Testing is the only way to find out what your home's radon level is.
In some areas, companies may offer different types of radon service agreements. Some agreements let you pay a one-time fee that covers both testing and radon mitigation, if needed. Contact your state radon office to find out if these are available in your state.
If you are thinking of selling your home and you have already tested your home for radon, review the Radon Testing Checklist to make sure that the test was done correctly. If so, provide your test results to the buyer.
No matter what kind of test you took, a potential buyer may ask for a new test especially if:
A buyer may also ask for a new test if your state or local government requires disclosure of radon information to buyers.
Have a test taken as soon as possible. If you can, test your home before putting it on the market. You should test in the lowest level of the home which is suitable for occupancy. This means testing in the lowest level that you currently live in or a lower level not currently used, but which a buyer could use for living space without renovations.
The radon test result is important information about your home's radon level. Some states require radon measurement testers to follow a specific testing protocol. If you do the test yourself, you should carefully follow the testing protocol for your area or EPA's Radon Testing Checklist. If you hire a contractor to test your residence, protect yourself by hiring a qualified individual or company.
You can determine a service provider's qualifications to perform radon measurements or to mitigate your home in several ways. Check with your state radon office. Many states require radon professionals to be licensed, certified, or registered. Most states can provide you with a list of knowledgeable radon service providers doing business in the state. In states that don't regulate radon services, ask the contractor if they hold a professional proficiency or certification credential. Such programs usually provide members with a photo-ID card, which indicates their qualifications and its expiration date. If in doubt, you should check with their credentialing organization. Alternatively, ask the contractor if they've successfully completed formal training appropriate for testing or mitigation, e.g., a course in radon measurement or radon mitigation.
If you are thinking of buying a home, you may decide to accept an earlier test result from the seller, or ask the seller for a new test to be conducted by a qualified radon tester. Before you accept the seller's test, you should determine:
If you decide that a new test is needed, discuss it with the seller as soon as possible.
Make sure that a radon test is done as soon as possible. Consider including provisions in the contract specifying:
Make sure that the test is done in the lowest level of the home suitable for occupancy. This means the lowest level that you are going to use as living space which is finished or does not require renovations prior to use. A state or local radon official or qualified radon tester can help you make some of these decisions.
If you decide to finish or renovate an unfinished area of the home in the future, a radon test should be taken before starting the project and after the project is finished. Generally, it is less expensive to install a radon-reduction system before (or during) renovations rather than afterwards.
Radon-resistant techniques work. When installed properly and completely, these simple and inexpensive passive techniques can help to reduce radon levels. In addition, installing them at the time of construction makes it easier to reduce radon levels further if the passive techniques don't reduce radon levels below 4 pCi/L. Radon-resistant techniques may also help to lower moisture levels and those of other soil-gases. Radon-resistant techniques:
|Making Upgrading Easy: Even if built to be radon-resistant, every new home should be tested for radon after occupancy. If you have a test result of 4 pCi/L or more, a vent fan can easily be added to the passive system to make it an active system and further reduce radon levels.|
|Are Cost-Effective: Building radon-resistant features into the house during construction is easier and cheaper than fixing a radon problem from scratch later. Let your builder know that radon-resistant features are easy to install using common building materials.|
|Save Money: When installed properly and completely, radon-resistant techniques can also make your home more energy efficient and help you save on your energy costs.|
In a new home, the cost to install passive radon-resistant features during construction is usually between $350 and $500. In some areas, the cost may be as low as $100. A qualified mitigator will charge about $300 to add a vent fan to a passive system, making it an active system and further reducing radon levels. In an existing home, it usually costs between $800 and $2,500 to install a radon mitigation system.
Radon-resistant techniques (features) may vary for different foundations and site requirements. If you're having a house built, you can learn about EPA's Model Standards (and architectural drawings) and explain the techniques to your builder. If your new house was built (or will be built) to be radon-resistant, it will include these basic elements:
Gas-Permeable Layer: This layer is placed beneath the slab or
flooring system to allow the soil gas to move freely underneath the
house. In many cases, the material used is a 4-inch layer of clean
gravel. This gas-permeable layer is used only in homes with basement and
slab-on-grade foundations; it is not used in homes with crawlspace
Plastic Sheeting: Plastic sheeting is placed on top of the
gas-permeable layer and under the slab to help prevent the soil gas from
entering the home. In crawl spaces, the sheeting (with seams sealed) is
placed directly over the crawlspace floor.
Sealing and Caulking: All below-grade openings in the foundation and
walls are sealed to reduce soil gas entry into the home.
Vent Pipe: A 3- or 4-inch PVC pipe (or other gas-tight pipe) runs
from the gas-permeable layer through the house to the roof, to safely
vent radon and other soil gases to the outside.
Junction Boxes: An electrical junction box is included in the attic to make the wiring and installation of a vent fan easier. For example, you decide to activate the passive system because your test result showed an elevated radon level (4 pCi/L or more). A separate junction box is placed in the living space to power the vent fan alarm. An alarm is installed along with the vent fan to indicate when the vent fan is not operating properly.
Radon testing is easy and the only way to find out if you have a radon problem in your home.
Since you cannot see or smell radon, special equipment is needed to detect it. When you're ready to test your home, you can order a radon test kit by mail from a qualified radon measurement services provider or laboratory. You can also hire a qualified radon tester, very often a home inspector, who will use a radon device(s) suitable to your situation. The most common types of radon testing devices are listed below.
Passive radon testing devices do not need power to function. The passive device group includes alpha track detectors, charcoal canisters, liquid scintillation detectors, and electret ion chambers. The active device group consists of different types of continuous monitors. All are available at https://inspectusa.com. These devices are exposed to the air in the home for a specified period of time and then sent to our laboratory for analysis. Both short-term and long-term passive devices are generally inexpensive. Some of these devices may have features that offer more resistance to test interference or disturbance than other passive devices. Qualified radon testers may use any of these devices to measure the home's radon level.
Active radon testing devices require power to function. These include continuous radon monitors and continuous working level monitors. They continuously measure and record the amount of radon or its decay products in the air. Many of these devices provide a report of this information which can reveal any unusual or abnormal swings in the radon level during the test period. A qualified tester can explain this report to you. In addition, some of these devices are specifically designed to deter and detect test interference. Some technically advanced active devices offer anti-interference features. Although these tests may cost more, they may ensure a more reliable result.
A state or local radon official can explain the differences between devices and recommend the ones which are most appropriate for your needs and expected testing conditions.
Make sure to use a radon measurement device from a qualified laboratory. Certain precautions should be followed to avoid interference during the test period. See the Radon Testing Checklist for more information on how to get a reliable test result.
There is a potential for test interference in real estate transactions. There are several ways to prevent or detect test interference:
Home buyers and sellers should consult a qualified radon test provider about the use of these precautions.
What’s the difference between short-term and long-term testing?
Radon gas levels in a home are not the same every day, hour or week. Changes in the ground water level, weather, baromotric pressure, how often windows and doors are opened and closed, the type of air conditioning/heating systems you use, and your family's lifestyle all contribute to the level of radon gas in your home each day. Since the radon levels vary from day to day and season to season, a short-term testis less likely than a long-term test to tell you your year-round average radon level. However, if you need results quickly, a short-term test may be used to decide whether to fix the home. Ashort-term radon gas test (48 to 96 hour sampling peroiod) may show unusually high or low levels due to the weather and activity in your home. A long-term radon gas test (3 to 12 month sampling period) will average your exposure to radon levels over a period of time, and experts agree that this gives a more conclusive test result.
The quickest way to test is with short-term tests. Short-term tests remain in your home from two days to 90 days, depending on the device. There are two groups of devices which are more commonly used for short-term testing. The passive device group includes alpha track detectors, charcoal canisters, charcoal liquid scintillation detectors, and electret ion chambers. The active device group consists of different types of continuous monitors.
|Whether you test for radon yourself or hire a state-certified tester or a privately certified tester, all radon tests should be taken for a minimum of 48 hours. A longer period of testing is required for some devices.|
Long-term tests remain in your home for more than 90 days. Alpha track, and electret ion chamber detectors are commonly used for this type of testing. A long-term test will give you a reading that is more likely to tell you your home's year-round average radon level than a short-term test. If time permits (more than 90 days) long-term tests can be used to confirm initial short-term results. When long-term test results are 4 pCi/L or higher, EPA recommends fixing the home.e. Doing a Short-Term Test...
If you are testing in a real estate transaction and you need results quickly, any of the following three options for short-term Tests are acceptable in determining whether the home should be fixed. Any real estate test for radon should include steps to prevent or detect device interference with the test device.
When Choosing a Short-Term Testing Option... There are trade-offs among the short-term testing options. Two tests taken at the same time (simultaneous) would improve the precision of this radon test. One test followed by another test (sequential) would most likely give a better representation of the seasonal average. Both active and passive devices may have features which help to prevent test interference.
|Short-Term Testing Options||What to do Next|
Take two short-term tests at the same time in the same location for at least 48 hours.
Take an initial short-term test for at least 48 hours. Immediately upon completing the first test, do a second test using an identical device in the same location as the first test.
Fix the home if the average of two tests is 4 pCi/L or more.
Fix the home if the average of the two tests is 4 pCi/L or more.
Test the home with a continuous monitor for at least 48 hours.
Fix the home if the average radon level is 4 pCi/L or more.
If You Do the Test Yourself
When you are taking a short-term test, close windows and doors and keep them closed, except for normal entry and exit. If you are taking a short-term test lasting less than four days, be sure to:
You should receive your test results within a few weeks. If you need results quickly, you should find out how long results will take and, if necessary, request expedited service.
|If You Hire a Qualified Radon Tester|
In many cases, home buyers and sellers may decide to have the radon test done by a qualified radon tester who knows the proper conditions, test devices, and guidelines for obtaining a reliable radon test result. They can also:
The average indoor radon level is estimated to be about 1.3 pCi/L; roughly 0.4 pCi/L of radon is normally found in the outside air. The U.S. Congress has set a long-term goal that indoor radon levels be no more than outdoor levels. While this goal is not yet technologically achievable for all homes, radon levels in many homes can be reduced to 2 pCi/L or below.
Radon Test Results Reported in Two Ways
Your radon test results may be reported in either picoCuries per liter of air (pCi/L) or working levels (WL). If your test result is in pCi/L, EPA recommends you fix your home if your radon level is 4 pCi/L or higher. If the test result is in WL, EPA recommends you fix the home if the working level is 0.02 WL or higher. Some states require WL results to be converted to pCi/L to minimize confusion.
Sometimes short-term tests are less definitive about whether the home is at or above 4 pCi/L; particularly when the results are close to 4 pCi/L. For example, if the average of two short-term tests is 4.1 pCi/L, there is about a 50% chance that the year-round average is somewhat below 4 pCi/L.
However, EPA believes that any radon exposure carries some risk; no level of radon is safe. Even radon levels below 4 pCi/L pose some risk. You can reduce your risk of lung cancer by lowering your radon level.
As with other environmental pollutants, there is some uncertainty about the magnitude of radon health risks. However, we know more about radon risks than risks from most other cancer-causing substances. This is because estimates of radon risks are based on data from human studies (underground miners). Additional studies on more typical populations are under way.
Your radon measurement will give you an idea of your risk of getting lung cancer from radon. Your chances of getting lung cancer from radon depend mostly on:
Smoking combined with radon is an especially serious health risk. If you smoke or are a former smoker, the presence of radon greatly increases your risk of lung cancer. If you stop smoking now and lower the radon level in your house, you will reduce your lung cancer risk.
Based on information contained in the National Academy of Sciences 1998 report, The Health Effects of Exposure to Indoor Radon, your radon risk may be somewhat higher than shown; especially if you have never smoked. It's never too late to reduce your risk to lung cancer. Don't wait to test and fix a radon problem. If you are a smoker, stop smoking.
It's never too
late to reduce your risk of lung cancer.
Don't wait to test and fix a radon problem.
If you are a smoker, stop smoking.
|Radon Level||If 1,000 smokers were exposed to this level over a lifetime*||Risk of cancer from radon exposure compares to**|| WHAT TO DO:
Stop smoking and
|20 pCi/L||About 260 people could get lung cancer||250 times the risk of drowning||Fix your home|
|10 pCi/L||About 150 people could get lung cancer||200 times the risk of dying in a home fire||Fix your home|
|8 pCi/L||About 120 people could get lung cancer||30 times the risk of dying in a fall||Fix your home|
|4 pCi/L||About 62 people could get lung cancer||5 times the risk of dying in a car crash||Fix your home|
|2 pCi/L||About 32 people could get lung cancer||6 times the risk of dying from poison||Consider fixing between 2 & 4 pCi/L|
|1.3 pCi/L||About 20 people could get lung cancer||(Average indoor radon level)||(Reducing radon
levels below 2 pCi/L is difficult.)
|0.4 pCi/L||About 3 people could get lung cancer||(Average outdoor radon level)|
|Note: If you are a former smoker, your
risk may be lower.
pCi/L (pico Curies per Liter)
* Lifetime risk of lung cancer deaths from EPA Assessment of Risks from Radon in Homes (EPA 402-R-03-003).
** Comparison data calculated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 1999-2001 National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Reports.
|Radon Level||If 1,000 non-smokers were exposed to this level over a lifetime*||Risk of cancer from radon exposure compares to**||WHAT TO DO:|
|20 pCi/L||About 36 people could get lung cancer||35 times the risk of drowning||Fix your home|
|10 pCi/L||About 18 people could get lung cancer||20 times the risk of dying in a home fire||Fix your home|
|8 pCi/L||About 15 people could get lung cancer||4 times the risk of dying in a fall||Fix your home|
|4 pCi/L||About 7 people could get lung cancer||The risk of dying in a car crash||Fix your home|
|2 pCi/L||About 4 person could get lung cancer||The risk of dying from poison||Consider fixing between 2 and 4 pCi/L|
|1.3 pCi/L||About 2 people could get lung cancer||(Average indoor radon level)||(Reducing radon levels below
2 pCi/L is difficult.)
|0.4 pCi/L||(Average outdoor radon level)|
|Note: If you are a former smoker, your risk may be higher.
pCi/L (pico Curies per Liter)
* Lifetime risk of lung cancer deaths from EPA Assessment of Risks from Radon in Homes (EPA 402-R-03-003).
** Comparison data calculated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 1999-2001 National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Reports.
For reliable test results, follow this Radon Testing Checklist carefully. Testing for radon is not complicated. Improper testing may yield inaccurate results and require another test. Disturbing or interfering with the test device, or with closed-house conditions, may invalidate the test results and is illegal in some states. If the seller or qualified tester cannot confirm that all items have been completed, take another test.
|Before Conducting a Radon Test:|
|Closed-house conditions means keeping all windows closed, keeping doors closed except for normal entry and exit, and not operating fans or other machines which bring in air from outside. Fans that are part of a radon-reduction system or small exhaust fans operating for only short periods of time may run during the test.|
|During a Radon Test:|
|After a Radon Test:|
EPA recommends that you take action to reduce your home's indoor radon levels if your radon test result is 4 pCi/L or higher. It is better to correct a radon problem before placing your home on the market because then you have more time to address a radon problem.
If elevated levels are found during the real estate transaction, the buyer and seller should discuss the timing and costs of the radon reduction. The cost of making repairs to reduce radon levels depends on how your home was built and other factors. Most homes can be fixed for about the same cost as other common home repairs, like painting or having a new hot water heater installed. The average cost for a contractor to lower radon levels in a home can range from $800 to about $2,500.
A variety of methods can be used to reduce radon in homes. Sealing cracks and other openings in the foundation is a basic part of most approaches to radon reduction. EPA does not recommend the use of sealing alone to limit radon entry. Sealing alone has not been shown to lower radon levels significantly or consistently.
In most cases, a system with a vent pipe(s) and fan(s) is used to reduce radon. These "sub-slab depressurization" systems do not require major changes to your home. Similar systems can also be installed in homes with crawl space. These systems prevent radon gas from entering the home from below the concrete floor and from outside the foundation. Radon mitigation contractors may use other methods that may also work in your home. The right system depends on the design of your home and other factors.
Techniques for reducing radon are discussed in EPA's "Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction." As with any other household appliance, there are costs associated with the operation of the radon-reduction system.
If your test results indicate an elevated radon level, radon-resistant techniques can be inexpensively included as part of the renovation. Major renovations can change the level of radon in any home. Test again after the work is completed.
Select a qualified radon-reduction (mitigation) contractor to reduce the radon levels in your home. Any mitigation measures taken or system installed in your home must conform to your state and/or local regulations. In states without regulations covering mitigation, the system should conform to EPA's Radon Mitigation Standards.
EPA recommends that the mitigation contractor review the radon measurement results before beginning the radon-reduction work. Test again after the radon mitigation work has been completed to confirm that previous elevated levels have been reduced.
Choose a radon mitigation contractor to fix your radon problem just as you would for any other home repair. You may want to get more than one estimate, ask for and check their references. Make sure the person you hire is cerified to install a mitigation system. Some states regulate or certify radon mitigation services providers as well. Verify this in advance.
Be aware that a potential conflict of interest exists if the same person or firm performs the testing and installs the mitigation system. Some states may require the homeowner to sign a waiver in such cases. If the same person or firm does the testing and mitigation, make sure the testing is done in accordance with the Radon Testing Checklist. Contact your state radon office or health deppartment for more information.
The radon in your home's indoor air can come from two sources, the soil or your water supply. Compared to radon entering your home through water, radon entering your home through soil is a much larger risk. If you've tested for radon in air and have elevated radon levels and your water comes from a private well, have your water tested. The devices and procedures for testing your home's water supply are different from those used for measuring radon in air.
The radon in your water supply poses an inhalation risk and an ingestion risk. Research has shown that your risk of lung cancer from breathing radon in air is much larger than your risk of stomach cancer from swallowing water with radon in it. Most of your risk from radon in water comes from radon released into the air when water is used for showering and other household purposes.
Radon in your home's water in not usually a problem when its source is surface water. A radon in water problem is more likely when its source is ground water, e.g., a private well or a public water supply system that uses ground water. Some public water systems treat their water to reduce radon levels before it is delivered to your home. If you are concerned that radon may be entering your home through the water and your water comes from a public water supply, contact your water supplier.
If you've tested your private well and have a radon in water problem, it can be fixed. Your home's water supply can be treated in one of two ways. Point-of-entry treatment can effectively remove radon from the water before it enters your home. Point-of-entry treatment usually employs either granular activated carbon (GAC) filters or aeration devices. While GAC filters usually cost less than aeration devices, filters can collect radioactivity and may require a special method of disposal. Point-of-use treatment devices remove radon from your water at the tap, but only treat a small portion of the water you use, e.g., the water you drink. Point-of-use devices are not effective in reducing the risk from breathing radon released into the air from all water used in the home.
Radon testing is an important part of assuring your family's risk of Radon Gas causing ailments to be reduced. Radon kills. Order your radon test kit today! Visit our secure online
The Map was developed using five factors to determine radon potential: indoor radon measurements, geology, aerial radioactivity, soil permeability and foundation type. Radon potential assessment is based on geologic provinces. Radon Index Matrix is the quantitative assessment of radon potential. Geologic Provinces were adapted to county boundaries for the Map of Radon Zones.
A higher resolution version of the map is available (more suitable for printing): EPA Radon Zone Map (1mB file)
You can view your State's radon potential map by clicking on your State below the map.
Alabama || Alaska || Arizona || Arkansas || California || Colorado || Connecticut || Delaware || Florida || Georgia || Hawaii || Idaho || Illinois || Indiana || Iowa || Kansas || Kentucky || Louisiana || Maine || Maryland || Massachusetts || Michigan ||Minnesota ||Mississippi ||Missouri ||Montana ||Nebraska ||Nevada ||New Hampshire ||New Jersey ||New Mexico ||New York ||North Carolina || North Dakota || Ohio ||Oklahoma ||Oregon ||Pennsylvania ||Rhode Island ||South Carolina || South Dakota || Tennessee ||Texas ||Utah ||Vermont ||Virginia ||Washington ||West Virginia ||Wisconsin ||Wyoming